Abstract


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Dr. Alao AYOTUNDE (Ph.D)

REDEEMER’S UNIVERSITY,
MOWE, OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
aypumping2000@yahoo.com

INFLUENCE OF ADVERTISING
ON RELIGION

Advertising according to Dominick (2011:342) is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services usually paid for by an identified sponsor. It is a form of communication for marketing which is used to encourage or persuade an audience i.e. viewers, readers or listeners to convince them or make them take an action. Religion on the other hand deals with an organized collection of belief systems cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. This study will be focused on the relationship between advertising and religion. How they either support or counter each other.
 
Using the Cognitive response theory which was propounded by Sandra Ball-Rokeach in 1968, which postulates that people tend to judge the value of a persuasive message according to how these messages blend into their personal cognitive pattern or system of understanding. This means they derive value from or accept messages that remind them of something they already know. The research will also be framed on the uses and gratification theory. Its central point lies in the deliberate choice by the users of the mass media to satisfy their needs. The objective is to find out how advertising influences the various buying decisions of various people with different religious affiliations. Also it is observed that Advertising is no longer limited to the traditional media- television, radio, newspaper, and magazine and bill boards to send their messages. Technology has enabled advertising to reach consumers efficiently through a means of other interactive media like the internet as such the research will also take a look at the widespread of advertising using the internet.
 
The study will employ the simple random sampling and personal interview. The personal interview will be conducted on the producers of specific advertisements as well as the consumers of the various advertisements.  Some of the major arguments of the research are that advertisements have a way of influencing the consumers i.e. the audience regardless of their religious background. Advertising has various meanings to different people to the consumer it means one of the several incoming messages directed to the consumer, the salience of which is influenced by the emotional, physical and need state of the individual which can be influenced by the kind of religion they practise.
 
It is believed that the research will help to bridge the gap between religion and advertising as well as help religion to bloom with the use of certain advertising techniques. Also with the endless possibilities of the internet and how it can change the face of advertising and religion, it is believed that there will be a major breakthrough on how advertising can be used to reach out to people regardless of their religious background.

Key Words: Advertising, Religion, Influence, Messages, communication.

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CAMILA ARÊAS

PhD candidate at Press French Institute (IFP)
Paris II University (Sorbonne)
cc.areas@gmail.com

Political dispute over the status (religious/profane) of French Republican territories: analysis of media debate on Marine Le Pen “catch-phrase” about Muslim pray in the streets

Advertising according to Dominick (2011:342) is any form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services usually paid for by an identified sponsor. It is a form of communication for marketing which is used to encourage or persuade an audience i.e. viewers, readers or listeners to convince them or make them take an action. Religion on the other hand deals with an organized collection of belief systems cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. This study will be focused on the relationship between advertising and religion. How they either support or counter each other.
 
Using the Cognitive response theory which was propounded by Sandra Ball-Rokeach in 1968, which postulates that people tend to judge the value of a persuasive message according to how these messages blend into their personal cognitive pattern or system of understanding. This means they derive value from or accept messages that remind them of something they already know. The research will also be framed on the uses and gratification theory. Its central point lies in the deliberate choice by the users of the mass media to satisfy their needs. The objective is to find out how advertising influences the various buying decisions of various people with different religious affiliations. Also it is observed that Advertising is no longer limited to the traditional media- television, radio, newspaper, and magazine and bill boards to send their messages. Technology has enabled advertising to reach consumers efficiently through a means of other interactive media like the internet as such the research will also take a look at the widespread of advertising using the internet.
 
The study will employ the simple random sampling and personal interview. The personal interview will be conducted on the producers of specific advertisements as well as the consumers of the various advertisements.  Some of the major arguments of the research are that advertisements have a way of influencing the consumers i.e. the audience regardless of their religious background. Advertising has various meanings to different people to the consumer it means one of the several incoming messages directed to the consumer, the salience of which is influenced by the emotional, physical and need state of the individual which can be influenced by the kind of religion they practise.
 
It is believed that the research will help to bridge the gap between religion and advertising as well as help religion to bloom with the use of certain advertising techniques. Also with the endless possibilities of the internet and how it can change the face of advertising and religion, it is believed that there will be a major breakthrough on how advertising can be used to reach out to people regardless of their religious background.

Key Words: Advertising, Religion, Influence, Messages, communication.

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Rastislav Dluhý, M.A.

Department of journalism Catholic university Ružomberok
rastidl@gmail.com

Media effects of basic Christian message presented on Television

Right from the begging the Church began to use new devices of modern communication technologies, as in the case of radio and television. The new media are no exception. The Church wants to communicate her message by all possible means. In using new technologies many new questions arise that cannot be overlooked. Are these new communication channels appropriate for conveying Church’s basic message? Is not something vital of the message lost in the communication process? What effects can have on a listener of a viewer the message mediated in such a way? The aim of this paper is to introduce us into this topic on the basis of the first part of research of TV audience of American Catholic television EWTN. The purpose of the research was to find out the effects of basic evangelistic message (Kerygma) presented in the programme Choices we face on its viewers. This programme is the longest lasting in the history of the Catholic Church (since 1985). The research sample is made up of 500 viewers of this programme who completed quantitative – qualitative questionnaire. This questionnaire was a research tool in the first stage of audience research. In this paper the author tries to at least partially answer the question: „To what extent can such mediated message change thinking and acting of a person? Does it perhaps even have a power to trigger „conversion?“   

Key words: message, media effects, audience

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Krzysztof Gajdka, PhD.

Associated professor
University of Economics in Katowice, Poland
Department of Economic Journalism and New Media
kgajdka@gmail.com

Roman Catholic broadcasting radio stations in Poland

 

There are over twenty diocesan Roman Catholic broadcasting radio stations in Poland. They are of different profile: in some of them evangelization and religious topics are the most important, in others – regional issues and musical and journalistic programs are dominant,  religious topics (including prayers and broadcasts of services) appear  in evening hours.
 
For the Polish Roman Catholic Church, diocesan broadcasting radio stations are important means of evangelization. In some regions of  Poland, these stations successfully compete with other regional stations and they achieve good financial results. In other regions, diocesan stations have big financial problems and also problems to gain advertisement givers (which can be connected with awkward management, often led by clergymen who do not have managing abilities and do not understand the specifics of the local radio market).
 
That is why, especially because of the weaker stations, there has been an attempt to create the network of diocesan Catholic stations named PLUS, which are the try to use regional stations frequency to  broadcast all-Polish  program.
 
The prepared article concerns the role and the importance of diocesan  broadcasting radio stations, their place in the Polish media system as  well as the history and the prospects for the future. The analysis  will be completed with the information concerning the all-Polish Radio  Maryja (belonging to Redemptorists convent) and the commercial Christian stations as well as the Catholic radio bands in all Polish Radio programs. 

Key words: Catholic broadcasting radio stations, diocesies, Catholic Church, radio, media system, press market.

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Jacques Guyot

professeur à l’université de Paris 8 – Vincennes
Directeur du Centre d’étude sur les médias,
les technologies et l’internationalisation CEMTI EA3388
jacques.guyot@univ-paris8.fr

Religious programmes on French public television.
Legal frameworks and paradoxes of the doctrine of laicity

French debates around the prohibition of religious signs in schools raised a controversy aimed at the Republican doctrine of “laïcité”. Outside France, many countries, like the USA, pointed out what they consider as intolerance towards denominations. In Voltaire’s country, the vote of the 2004 act reactivated historical clashes between the defenders of a clear-cut separation of the Church and the State who think that expressing one’s faith should be a private matter and those who wish to bring changes in order to take into account religious idiosyncrasies in the public sphere. In that particular polemic context, the centenary of the 1905 law of separation between the Church and the State challenged again the interpretation of laicity.
 
However, when taking a close look at the “laicité à la française“, the notion appears to be less strict than one says: born in a specific historical situation, as analysed by the historian and sociologist François Baubérot, the notion of laicity has always evolved in a very paradoxical way, constantly wavering between conjectural compromises and ideological clashes, coexistence of distinct regimes or total separation, return to the magisterium of clergy versus advances towards more secularized religious practices. In short, ambivalence has always been the rule when interpreting laicity, which is a very dynamic notion revealing socio-political balance of powers as well as confrontation between contradictory visions of the world.
 
I would like to comment the notion of laicity and put it back in its historical context, starting with the way legal and constitutional frameworks integrate sociopolitical stakes and finishing on the paradoxes of religious expression in PSB television. In other word, I would like to answer the question: according to the law, are PSB TV channels really secular (laïc)?
 
Through this question, I would like to point out how laicity is a very erratic socio-political construction; I would also like to show the specificity of present debates around the claims from French Muslims. Indeed, for a long time, clashes opposed autochthonous Christian denominations with central power before reaching, with the passing centuries, some kind of modus vivendi; now, confrontation comes the Arabo-Muslims, i.e. an exogenous cultural universe. Less than a clash of civilization as predicted by Samuel Huntington, the situation looks more like the return of the repressed in a country that finally discovers the descendants of its formers colonies along with their religion and culture.
 
Audio-visual media echo and crystallize these debates. They are also a very interesting case to study as France is one of the very few countries in Europe allowing denominations to produce and broadcast religious programmes on television, thus guarantying values of plurality, tolerance and freedom of expression for the Catholics, Protestants, Orthodox, Jews, Muslims and Buddhists. However, the journalistic treatment of religious issues in the news is far from being unbiased.
 
The theoretical framework includes classical references to the sociology of religion [Durkheim Émile; Weber Max], to Constitutional law as well as works of historians [Delumeau Jean] or philosophers [Debray Régis; Onfray Michel; Pena-Ruiz Henr

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Charlotte Howell

Associate Editor, *In Media Res*
Ph.D. Student, Georgia State University
M.A., Radio-Television-Film, University of Texas-Austin

Sci-Fi Cults: “Alternative” Religions, Science Fiction, and Spreadability

 

Religion, while interacting with our quotidian existence, is most often conceived as connecting with and granting access to sacred, othered space.  Religious scholar Emile Durkheim defines religion as “a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden” and Mircea Eliade goes further in defining the sacred against the profane.[1] As such a conception of the sacred implies, religious structures act as gatekeepers and intermediaries that maintain the specialness of religion, a characteristic that religious scholar Ann Taves argues does not necessarily create religious experience but often does so. Taves argues, “The idea of ‘specialness’ is one broader, more generic net that captures most of what people have in mind when they refer to ‘sacred,’ ‘magical,’ ‘spiritual,’ ‘mystical,’ or ‘religious’ and then some.  We can consider specialness both behaviorally and substantively.” [2] I argue that spreadability, as coined and characterized by Henry Jenkins, Joshua Green, and Sam Ford in Spreadable Media, is one of those behaviors that determines or delineates specialness. So what happens when religion suddenly becomes not only accessible but also spreadable?
 
To answer this question, I focus on three different (potential) religions that originate in science fiction texts and have seen noticeable moments of spreadability online in the last decade: Scientology, Jediism, and Whovianism.  In choosing these three sites to interrogate notions of religious legitimacy, I hope to map a spectrum of legitimacy in relation to spreadability and how discourses dispersed through the latter contribute to ideas of the former.  As such, there are three axes that influence how the discourses of religion are framed as they spread: positively and toward legitimacy or negative and toward deligitimacy.  Performing a discourse analysis of the spread of particular media objects that engaged with the meeting of science fiction and religion, I found the (potential) religions that were more open about their practices and beliefs, that were perceived as more culturally marginal and thus less powerful, and/or more embracing of their science fiction and fandom roots developed positive frames as information about them spread; whereas more secretive, more powerful, and more forcibly distant from their science fiction roots were faced negativity as they spread. Jediism and Whovianism, with close ties to their connections to Star Wars and the British television Doctor Who, respectively, fall toward the positive spread end, and Scientology exemplifies how these factors contribute to negative spread.
 
[1] Durkheim, Emile. “The Social as Sacred.” Introducing Religion. Ed. Daniel L. Pals. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 106; Eliade, Mircea. “Religion as Response to the Sacred.” Introducing Religion. Ed. Daniel L. Pals. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009). 275.
[2] Taves, Ann.  Religious Experience Reconsidered.  (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009), 26.

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Lecturer Florica Iuhas

Faculty of Journalism and Communication Sciences
University of Bucharest
loriiuhas@yahoo.com

Religious conflicts in today's mass media in Romania – framing the sacred issues in a profane code

In a world of multiple crises, a world concerned with intolerance, terrorism, xenophobia, aggressive nationalism, racism, exclusion, marginalization and discrimination, on November the 16th, 1995 the UNESCO General Conference adopted the "Declaration of principles on tolerance", the day being proclaimed the International day of tolerance.
 
Article 29 of the Romanian Constitution stipulates that "the freedom of thought, opinion and religious beliefs shall not be restricted in any way" (Chapter II, Official Gazette, no. 767/2003, Part I). Based on this constitutional principle, in Romania, there are 18 recognized religious groups and as many religious associations (http://www.culte.gov.ro/, accessed on 11.03. 2013).
 
Since the early years of post-communism, ethnic conflicts and religious intolerance have reached the intergovernmental fora, which issued numerous warnings about breaches in the freedom of religion in our country. This paper aims to investigate - through content analysis - how current conflicts and the intolerance of followers of different religions in Romania are framed by the press.
 
Researching the media content reporting on inter-confessional conflicts in Romania started from the premise that not only in history but also in the media, the imaginary intervenes permanently in order to legitimize the present by deforming and reinterpreting the past. Political or religious myths, widely used by communist propaganda make their presence felt in today's society with all their symbolic charge (Boia, 1997; Girardet, 1997).
 
Addressing interfaith conflicts is a mythological enterprise for the press, which thus becomes, paradoxically, dependent on a discursive model practiced by the religious institutions. Our study highlights the many myths circulated by the media in reporting on religious conflict.
 
If we consider the mythical side, inherent to the belief in the supernatural and, thus, to religion, then we understand that the religious, mythological discourse, draws its substance from the collective imagination, in which the images focus on the evil and have a corresponding positive counter-image.
 
One of media’s myths is that of the Conspiracy or the Plot which has at its center the image of the Organization. The image of the plot is linked to that of the enemy and generates the image of the "other" along the lines of Evil. The division between Churches and priests affects not only the community but is expanding to both the rites of passage of individuals and the administrative sphere. One of the manifestations of evil is the perversion or destruction of religious symbols such that the dissolution of spiritual values ​​extends to the whole community and accentuates the drama of rupture.
 
In press coverage, the use of historical facts relates to a reality imposed by the totalitarian regime, on the action of totalitarian evil which must be removed. On the canvas of History’s myth, the motive of violence appears legitimized by its being part of a particular faith. As a necessary redemption, the press emphasizes that violence is opposed by the state’s juridical norm, through which conflict resolution is sought.
 
The myth of Unity is reenacted by the media by means of two antithetical events that marked world history: Babel, where tongues ​​were separated and the Pentecost, marked by the effort to reunite (Raoul Girardet, 1997).
 
The reviewed corpus allows us to identify, on one hand, the calls for unity from both churches, on the other hand, journalists’ biased discourse towards a particular religion. It results, from the undertaken analysis, the focus of certain journalistic discourse on the presumption of right on behalf one of the conflicting parties, with total omission of the opposing party's position or even the exacerbated development of certain negative imagological elements. 

Key words: religion, conflict, mass-media, intolerance, myth

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Robert Madu

robertmadu5@yahoo.com

New Media, Religion and Arab Spring: Fuelling the Revolution for Good or Bad?

The Arab spring represented a shift from Islamic-docile mentality to a new ground that requires accountability, transparency with over-riding rule of law. Such a shift, obviously, marked a departure from autocracies and invites openness that accompanies culture of democracy and public choice.
 
From Tunisia, Libya, Yemen, Egypt and Syria, millions of men, women and children rose against their governments less minding the dark odds, marched through the streets in defiance of pro-government securities, prayed in the mosques but now with a different prayer request as they ask God to remove their governments, organized rebellion and religiously pursued their cause.
 
The revolutions recorded great success in many of such States. But critical thinkers question the inspiration behind Arab spring revolution.  The Mass media especially the new media played significant role before, during and after the revolutions. Before the revolutions, new media sold different dreams to the Arabs and changed their taste. Tastes that were dominated by western values and such set the agenda for revolts. During the revolutions, new media were the major sources of external communications as the images of violence and terror urge humanitarian assistances and moved world bodies and stake-holders to partner for the oppressed except in Syria. After the revolutions in some States, new media’s accounts are vital for pursuit of justice, facts, nation-building, reconciliations or far distant victory.
 
Again, critical thinkers research into moral philosophy by questioning whether the revolutions were for good or bad. The answers might revolve around how societies ought to have been run and the central roles of freedom and religion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the roles of new media and attached influences of religion on the Arab revolution.  This research will depend on content analysis as the research method.

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Antonia MATEI, PhD.

Assist. Prof.,
Faculty of Journalism and Communication Studies,
University of Bucharest, Romania
antoniamatei@gmail.com

Desacralization of a National Holiday – religious and identity symbols in the commemorations of December 1st . Case study: Adevărul, România liberă,
Jurnalul naţional, 2009 - 2011

The contemporary world seems to be characterized by a new trend, that of returning and appreciating its past. In this search for the past we witness to the rise of a new spirituality, to the birth of new connections between religion, memory, identity and media. In this process the sacred acquires new meanings and we can talk about the sacralization of memory brings which brings a conjunction between personal and group identity.
 
Commemorations are a ritual re-enactment of historical moments. Their remembering helps create and preserve collective memories. The connection between commemorations and media became closer and closer in the past decades, journalism being one of the most important elements of the commemoration system. The relationship between the two of them is a tight one, up to the point that they cannot perform one without the other anymore.
 
Thus, Desacralization of a National Holiday – religious and identity symbols in the commemorations of December 1st aims to find out if the press is an important part in building and maintaining the Romanian collective identity and memory and if it contributes to changing the daily profane space to a new one, a sacred one, a space of solemn celebrations on one of the most important date in the Romanian history.
 
The paper analyzes three national newspapers, over a 3 year span, between 2009 and 2011 and by means of the framing theory, reflects the way that written press presents the process of commemorating the National Day of Romania. In the media field, framing represents choosing certain information, a certain perspective out of all angles that an event includes. The way a topic is framed in a piece of news is very important because it sets (and many times imposes) the image that the public gets about the respective event.
 
Finally, the research proves the fact that the religious and sacred symbols are politicized, the commemoration is deeply caught in the profane space and the Romanian press doesn’t contribute to the sacralization of the commemorations, on the contrary, the reports are a way of deritualizing such an important moment.

Key words: commemoration, media rituals, national identity, framing theory

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Mitra NAEIMI

MA, Global Studies, Lund University, Sweden
sim08nmi@student.lu.se

Using Islamic Elements in Advertisings: The Case of IRIB

 

Iran does not have any private TV or radio organizations, and Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) is a public/governmental TV and radio organization. In recent years, many private and public companies use Islamic symbols or statements in their commercial advertisings; for instance, they use images of holy shrines in advertisings about banks, foods and etc. Habermas says that religion has a “seat” in “everyday life” (Habermas, 2006: 8). It seems that, in Islamic countries, religion has a “seat” not only in everyday life but also in advertisings- while it can be said that commercial advertisings are mostly secular in all countries. This indicates a shift in Islamic political culture and media organizations that also forms the background to the academic debates on role of religion in marketing and branding in Islamic countries. This research will attempt to study TV advertisings in Iran after the Islamic Revolution in 1978: what makes them religious advertisings. Particularly, I will concentrate on TV advertisings in four recent years. I will attempt to investigate how companies persuade the audiences/customers into making decisions or purchasing their products by using statements of Prophet Mohammad or holy Imams, holy images, and they even use holy names as their brand

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Michael PALMER

Prof emeritus,
Univ. de la Sorbonne nouvelle, Paris 3
michael.palmer@univ-paris3.fr

Religious news on-line

 

The paper is based on a study of the Religion blog, ‘Faithworld’, of the  Thomson Reuters news agency and on interviews of  its editor.
 
What are the news-editorial choices made in covering and filing stories related to faiths held world-wide ? How does this blog fit into the series of Thomson-Reuters blogs ? Which writing styles, and  which content are appropriate for an international news-agency aiming at both religious and profane on-line readers ? These are esome of the questions to be adressed.
 
For a historical perspective, there would also be a discussion of the coverage of religion – a limited range of stories) in the archives of the French international news-agency, AFP ( from 1940s to the  ’60s) .
 
It may be that the theme of the Papacy would be centre-stage in both of the suggested case-studies.
 
The author has worked on international news-agencies for decades. In recent years, he has focussed on their coverage of religion.

Cf. M. Palmer, Homo informans, Paris, l’Amandier, 2011.

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Sorin Petrof

PhD Student,
Paul Valéry University - Montpellier III
petrofson@gmail.com

Religious Broadcasting – Between Sacred and Profane
Toward a Ritualization of Mystification

;Religion was always perceived as a mass phenomenon, in which individuals were supposed to be connected to a different reality through the mediating power of a certain ritual, at a certain time and in a certain space in order that the relocation from profane to sacred to be completed in a new space of appearance. This “holy trinity”, ritual-time-space, represents the basis and the means of this mediated, symbolic transfer. In the same time religion was described as a “closed” mass opposed to the “open” ones (Elias Canetti). The temple, the cast, the church and the dogma were always too restrictive in terms of participation of the open masses. For this reason at the heart of every universal or national religion there is a strong yearning to surpass the traditional limits in order to attracting and convincing all. Transmitting this sacred, mediated reality through media representation could be interpreted as a transformation from closed to open mass communication. From the beginning, religious broadcasting was conceptualized as a visual and acoustic altar where ritual, space and time are the pillars of this audio-visual “cathedral” the very space that could build the bridge between sacred and profane. Although in the process of religious broadcasting the content was regarded sacred and the form, just a profane but a technological necessity, this distinction exists only in the sphere of the imaginary. Does the religious broadcast reflect or fail to reflect that symbolic and presumed reality? From a constructionist point of view this is irrelevant as long as creates the meaning. The broadcasting ritual has to be meaningful, especially in this age of new visibility and must construct and generate a certain reality, i.e. a mediated one, if the audiences are to be “spelt” in this magic ritual of representation. How audiences recognize, accept or reject this “spelling” as a medium to imagine the world, others, and selves is a matter of sociological analysis, however no one would dispute this powerful outcome of the mediated representation, especially in the religious area. This paper tries to outline the force of media representation in the context of religious broadcasting that uses ritual and imagination to maintain the apparent distinction between sacred and profane and to generate alternative narratives. The process of representation itself may possess a dangerous proclivity, namely that every narrative eventually become mythicized and mystified. This is why the narrative should remain ambivalent and not impose an authoritative representation of reality. In this regard, the religious broadcasting, presuming the sacerdotal role to represent, mediate and interpret the relationship between sacred and profane and to generate a new space of appearance could easily end up into a ritualization of mystification, the ultimate step to its sacralization.  

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Assoc. prof. Raluca Nicoleta RADU

Faculty of Journalism and Mass Communication Studies,
University of Bucharest
rraluca@hotmail.com
raluca.radu@fjsc.ro

On media accountability and religious tradition: a Weberian lecture of a contemporaneous comparative study

The research results of a pan-European project, that included two Arab countries, indicate that the approach journalists manifest toward issues of ethics, responsibility and accountability depend on their national backgrounds. Both the quantitative and the qualitative methods used by the MediaAct team, in the 14 countries under study, indicated the same results.
 
These differences may be explained by national histories, political factors or economic factors, which may lead to the appearance of different clusters of nations, as it was suggested by seminal research, such as Siebert, Peterson and Schramm’s Four Theories of the Press (1956) or Hallin and Mancini’s media systems (2004). Nevertheless, the results of the MediaAct study show there are different clusters, based on approaches to responsibility and accountability. Why, in some nations, regardless of the historical backgrounds, the press council is more powerful than in others? How can one explain the similar attitudes towards responsibility, both for the Italian and the Romanian journalists, taking into account that the Italian media system is the most bureaucratic in Europe? How can one explain that, in some countries, the law is considered one of the most important factors influencing journalistic behavior, but the governmental pressure is viewed as detrimental for media freedom?
 
The article proposes the introduction of another factor in the discussion about responsibility, following Max Weber’s line: the religious tradition. The discussion of the research results will be based on the sociology of work and religion and the previous results of other cross-national analyses of religion and work attitudes (see, for example, Hayward and Kemmelmeier, 2011, or Parboteeah, Paik and B. Cullen, 2009).
 
The need to be accountable and responsible, the approach to guilt, the acceptance of regulatory and normative institutional pressures and the possibility of negotiation with different pressure factors may be better explain by general religious context, traditional understanding of work and leisure and traditional understanding of guilt and absolution. These all are rooted in a national religious context, even if the country is a laic one.
 
Is the religious element acknowledged by the journalists? The quantitative results indicate that God is an important factor only in Jordanian and Romanian newsroom. The religious tradition influences the cultural-cognitive context of the journalistic world. The relationship of the journalists with God and with the Church is, nevertheless, dependent of the contemporaneous image of the Church in the national public sphere and on the perceived role of the religious life and of the religious leaders. 

Key words: Accountability, journalism, religious tradition, guilt, Protestantism, Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Islam.

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Terezia RONKACOVA

Department of Journalism, Faculty of Arts and Letters,
Catholic University in Ružomberok, Hrabovská cesta 1 034 01 Ružomberok, Slovakia
roncakova@ku.sk

Argumentation Schemes in Media Coverage of Religious Topics Media Coverage of the Removal of Archbishop Róbert Bezák from the Management of Trnava Archdiocese

The paper focuses on the media coverage of religious topics and compares the coverage of these topics by secular and religious media. The media coverage is evaluated in terms of the classical rhetorical categories – the topoi –so as to arrive at the argumentation foundations of individual media messages. Based thereupon, the author draws conclusions as to how secular and religious media cover these topics, and points to the philosophical, personal background and value-driven assumptions of specific media environments and individuals who shape them.       
 
The author examines the recent story of the Slovak Archbishop Róbert Bezák’s dismissal from the management of the Archdiocese of Trnava. The paper examines the coverage of this story from its very beginning in June 2012 until today. The story had an unprecedented impact on the Slovak society and was heavily covered even by secular media, and therefore represents an optimal material for this type of research.
 
The research was conducted using the quantitative and qualitative content analysis method with a focus on examining the topoi.  This ancient concept is currently experiencing a rebirth and is regarded by modern researchers as a very fruitful and efficient way to explore the intersection of the religious and media communication sphere.

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Adriana ȘTEFĂNEL
MA Andreea TOMA

Facultatea de Jurnalism și Științele Comunicării,
Universitatea din București

The Avatars of Religious in the Romanian Media: The Mediated (Re)presentations of the Tanacu Case

No more than eight years ago (June, 2005), in Tanacu, a small village in Vaslui county (one of the poorest, less educated parts of Romania), Irina Cornici, a 23 years old woman treated for schizophrenia, starve to death after being crucified in an exorcist ritual. The priest that performed the ritual declared, in the Supreme Court trial, that he, and the nouns that assisted him, acted with the conviction that the victim was in a demonic state (the source: Daniel Corogeanu declaration, quoted by Mediafax, 15.01.2008). Also, he added that, in the past he saved many others, in similar states.
 
In  Romania, in which the popular religion (Riviere,Claude, 1997) boisterous erupted after the fall of the communist regime (see Stan, Lavinia; Turcescu, Lucian 2007/2010; Tismăneanu, Vladimir 1999), the case, The Tanacu Case, as it has been known, was highly publicized: the media (re)presented every step of the trial (included the triumphant return of the ex-priest in Tanacu); several documentaries were produced in order to clarified and explain the case; a BBC journalist, Tatiana Niculescu wrote a non-fictional novel; a play, Spovedania de la Tanacu [The Tanacu Confession] was staged in New York and Paris (source: Adevarul.ro, 7.07.2012). The mediatic apotheosize was reached in 2012, when the movie, directed  by Cristian Mungiu, După Dealuri [Beyond the Hills] won the Cannes’s best screen-play prize (among other prizes and nominalizations) .
 
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the (re)presentations of religious in the Tanacu Case, in four of the mentioned media – the written press, the TV documentaries, the book and the movie. The dimensions we will consider relevant for our research are (but not reduced at) the following:

  • - impeachment- comprehension
  • - modern-traditional
  • - legal-spiritual
  • - profane-sacred
  • - official-popular
  • - rational-emotional

We base our research on Serge Moscovici’s social representation theory (1961) also we intend to  use and adapt the methodology proposed by Jean-Claude Abric (1994) and developed by Jean-Marie Seca (2002/2008) in order to achieve our the epistemic goal: to identify the central core and the peripheral system of the representation of the religious in each analyzed media. Ultimately we want to correlate those systems with the position of each media on the information-entertainment axe.
 
Quoted books:
Abric, Jea-Claude (eds.) (1994) Practiques et representations sociales, PUF, Paris
Moscovici, Serge (1961) La Psychanalyse, son imagine et son publique PUF, Paris
Claude, Riviere (1997/2000) Socio-antropologia religiilor [Socio-anthropologie des religions]  Ed. Polirom, Iasi
Seca, Jean-Marie (2002/2008) Reprezentarile sociale [ Les representations sociales] ed. Institutul European, 2008
Stan, Lavinia; Turcescu, Lucian (2007/2010) Religie si politica in Romania postcomunista [Religion and Politics in Postcommunist Roumania], ed. Curtea Veche, Bucuresti
Tismaneanu, Vladimir (1998/1999) Fantasmele salvarii. Democratie, nationalism si mit in Europa post-comunista. Democratie, nationalism si mit in Europa post-comunista [Fantasies of Salvation. Democracy, Nationalism and Myths in PostCommunist Europe] ed. Polirom, Iasi

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alao

Michal Szyszka
Arkadiusz Wasinski

szyszkathome@gmail.com

The forms of participation of the Catholic Church in Poland in the modern media space

Henry Jenkins thinks that the development of new media takes palce according to the convergence principle and that it leads to creating a new dimension of functioning in the social space. In this space the traditional media still exist in public life but they enter a qualitatively new, symbiotic relation with the new generations of digital network media. This process opens for the present public life’s “actors” a lot of new, undefined in their variety, possibilities for social and cultural participation. If creatively developed, these possibilities usually work to the benefit of those actors, confirming their importance and attractiveness and strengthening their social status. No wonder, that the Catholic media enter the new media space and that the Catholic Church undertakes actions in the area of popularization of the religious knowledge and the church institutions as well as develops its evangelization activity in the new on-line form
 
In promoting the personalistic values included in the Scheler’s hierarchy, identified with the sacrum sphere of human life, at least four dimensions of the participation of the Catholic church in the modern new media space can be listed:

  1. 1. communication in the integrated modern media system, that is developed in the professional manner, submitted to the rules of functioning of the dominant public and commercial media;
  2. 2. communication developed in the semi-professional or even amateur manner, carried out in the Internet channels for social communication (e.g. social networks);
  3. 3. social marketing usually undertaken by different church-related charities or non-profit organizations;
  4. 4. social advertising within the urban public space in a form of e.g. outdoor banners on buildings.

The aforementioned dimensions of the presence of the sacral content involve various forms of direct and indirect initiations of religious activity and spiritual growth of the Poles, especially within the modern ways of social communication. Therefore, the analysis of the practical forms of the participation of the Catholic Church in the Polish media includes: a) functioning of the catholic news services and e-press in the Internet, among them administration of the Internet services by the parishes and church organizations; b) presence of the church organizations in the popular social networks such as Facebook, Twitter; c) use of the new technologies in the communication process with the church members and d) actions within social marketing carried out by the catholic organizations (e.g. Caritas, the Dominican Academic Ministry - Dominikańskie Duszpasterstwo Akademickie) in the new media and public spaces.

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